Lincolns restoration plan and johnsons policies of amnesty and pardon

America after the civil war

It extended citizenship to everyone born in the United States except visitors and American Indians. Blacks were enrolled as voters and former Confederate leaders were excluded for a limited period. These Black Codes attempted to return former slaves to something like their former condition by, among other things, restricting their movement, forcing them to enter into year-long labor contracts, prohibiting them from owning firearms, and by preventing them from suing or testifying in court. The Freedman's Bureau , a federal agency created to help the transition from slavery to emancipation, was thwarted in its attempts to provide for the welfare of the newly emancipated. Fourteenth -- All persons who have taken the oath of amnesty as prescribed in the President's Proclamation of December 8, A. And that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfully support all laws and proclamations which have been made during the existing rebellion with reference to the emancipation of slaves, so help me God. Because black women were considered to have little virtue, some in white society held that they could not be raped. And some even sought to regain their Congressional seniority. Northern officials gave varying reports on conditions involving freedmen in the South.

Voters then could elect delegates to draft revised state constitutions and establish new state governments. You know how looking at a math problem similar to the one you're stuck on can help you get unstuck?

The next step in the process would be for the states to formally elect a state government. After rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude on February 26, Several other killings never culminated in official cases.

The first vote on one of the 11 impeachment articles concluded on May 16 with a failure to convict Johnson. Several mitigating factors however led Johnson to greater clemency, influenced by the attitude of Lincoln for reconciliation and William H.

Lincolns restoration plan and johnsons policies of amnesty and pardon

Johnson also ordered nearly all the land in the hands of the government returned to its prewar owners -- dashing black hope for economic autonomy. By7, Presidential pardons had been granted.

Strengths and weaknesses of presidential reconstruction

Moderate Responses During the autumn of , the Radical Republicans responded to the implementation of the Black Codes by blocking the readmission of the former rebellious states to Congress. Sixth -- All who have engaged in any way in treating otherwise than lawfully as prisoners of war persons found in the United States service, as officers, soldiers, seamen, or in other capacities. Ninth -- All persons who held the pretended offices of Governors of States in insurrection against the United States. Several other killings never culminated in official cases. Stanton, the secretary of war whom the Tenure of Office Act was largely designed to protect , from office and attempted to replace him with Brevet Major General Lorenzo Thomas. Still-powerful whites sought to subjugate freed slaves via harsh laws that came to be known as the Black Codes. He returned all property, except, of course, their slaves, to former Confederates who pledged loyalty to the Union and agreed to support the 13th Amendment. Johnson was impeached on February 24, , in the U. It penalized states that did not give the vote to freedmen and created new federal civil rights that could be protected by federal courts. The first Reconstruction Act placed 10 Confederate states under military control, grouping them into five military districts that would serve as the acting government for the region. We'll take a look right away. He also gave amnesty and pardon. As a result, in some states the black population was a minority, while the number of blacks who were registered to vote nearly matched the number of white registered voters. Third -- All who shall have been military or naval officers of said pretended Confederate Government above the rank of Colonel in the army or Lieutenant in the navy. The Civil Rights Act of had previously granted U.

The pardon excluded office holders of the Confederate government or persons who had mistreated prisoners. Despite the abolition of slavery, many former Confederates were not willing to accept the social changes.

A system of whites-only primaries and violent intimidation by white groups also suppressed black participation.

effects of reconstruction on african american

Appointment of a Provisional Governor. In addition, Congress required that each state draft a new state constitution—which would have to be approved by Congress—and that each state ratify the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.

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The Battle Over Reconstruction